Spanish definite and indefinite articles can be tricky for English speakers at first.
While English has a total of three articles, Spanish has a lot more which change depending on gender and number.
You can’t avoid the reality that mastering definite and indefinite articles in Spanish is essential.
So let’s get started.
What do we mean by a Spanish definite and indefinite article?
To explain what definite and indefinite articles in Spanish are, we should first consider what an article is.
An article is a small word that speakers use to demonstrate whether they are speaking about a specific noun or a general noun.
As you might have gathered, we can divide articles into definite and indefinite categories.
“The” is the definite article in English, and “a” and “an” are the indefinite articles.
But which words are the equivalent in Spanish?
What are the definite articles in Spanish?
There are four different definite articles in Spanish since nouns can either be masculine or feminine.
The four types of definite articles in Spanish are:
Here are some usage examples of how you can use these definite Spanish articles:
El lápiz de Lucía no funciona muy bien.
La lámpara de Sara brilla intensamente.
Los cerdos de Antonio viven en una granja.
Las flores de Alex crecen cada año.
Gender exceptions for definite Spanish articles
Keep in mind that there are a few gender exceptions when using definite Spanish articles.
A masculine definite article can modify feminine nouns if the noun begins with a stressed a or ha.
For example, the word hambre is feminine, but speakers use the masculine definite article el to modify or identify this noun.
This rule applies to nouns like alma and águila, which also use the masculine definite article.
When do we use definite articles in Spanish?
Some of the main uses of definite Spanish articles that you should be aware of include: talking about a day of the week, talking about topics in general terms, talking about languages, talking about body parts, possessions or items someone owns, and telling the time.
Let’s look at these usages in more detail.
Mentioning a day of the week with definite Spanish articles
Although we don’t use this rule in English, use definite articles when referring to a day of the week in Spanish if they’re the sentence’s subject.
Here are some usage examples:
Voy al parque todos los sábados.
Hasta el lunes. Buen fin de semana.
No me gustan los martes. Siempre tengo mucho trabajo.
Talking about topics in general terms using definite Spanish articles
If you’re describing a group of things in a general sense, use a definite article to refer to them.
Use the following sentences as examples:
Las vacas comen el césped.
Los gatos son muy lindos.
No me gusta la comida basura.
Talking about languages with definite Spanish articles
Although we don’t use definite articles to talk about languages in English, we do use them in Spanish.
Here are some usage examples:
A mí me encanta el francés.
A mí no me gusta el inglés.
Llevo siete años y medio estudiando el español.
Using definite articles in Spanish to talk about body parts
Again, even though we don’t use definite articles to talk about body parts in English, we do use them in Spanish.
Take a look at these examples:
Cuando me dió la vacuna, me dolió el brazo.
Me duele la cabeza. He trabajado demasiado.
Le duele el pie.
Talking about items that someone owns using definite Spanish articles
Use the definite Spanish article when you want to describe an object that someone else owns.
Here are a few usage examples to help you understand this rule:
El ordenador de Pepe es caro.
La mochila de Sofía es grande.
El vaso de Jaime es pequeño.
Using definite articles in Spanish to tell the time
You may have already learned in a Spanish course that if you want to tell the time in Spanish you should use the definite article.
Here are some examples:
Los españoles comen a las once de la noche.
Los ingleses comen a las siete de la noche.
Como a las ocho de la noche.
What are indefinite articles in Spanish?
There are four indefinite articles in Spanish, which are:
Here are some examples of how to use them:
Compré una bici para mi hijo.
Ellos compraron un ordenador nuevo.
Compraré unos pendientes para mi cumpleaños.
Ellas compraron unas casas baratas.
When do we use indefinite articles in Spanish?
We use definite and indefinite articles in Spanish in different contexts.
Spanish speakers use indefinite articles when they are referring to something undefined, but some of the rules for using indefinite articles in Spanish include: Speaking about a single object, using a descriptive noun to describe a person and giving approximations.
Let’s look at these rules with a few examples.
Using indefinite articles in Spanish to talk about a single object
If you are speaking about a single object, and there are no other objects around, use the indefinite article in Spanish.
Since there’s only one object, remember to use the singular indefinite article in this case.
Quería pedir una cita.
Necesito un bolígrafo.
Using indefinite articles in Spanish with descriptive nouns
When you use a descriptive noun or replace an adjective with a descriptive noun, use an indefinite article in your sentence before that noun. Here are a few examples:
Eres un pájaro.
Ella es una genia.
Giving approximations with indefinite articles in Spanish
If you want to give an approximation when you’re unsure of the exact number of things you’re describing, use an indefinite article in Spanish.
Take a look at the following examples:
Voy a comprar unos ingredientes para el pastel.
Compró unas flores para el jardín.
When you should avoid using articles in Spanish
Watch out for some of these rules, which indicate when you should avoid using articles in Spanish:
1. Don’t use articles in Spanish to talk about professions or identity
For example, although we might say “I am a doctor” in English, in Spanish we don’t use the article. We would say soy medico.
This is important when using vocabulary for occupations.
2. Avoid using articles in Spanish when referring to things that don’t have a specific quantity
For instance, if you want to say that you’re expecting several storms in the next months, you would say habrá tormentas en los próximos meses (without an article before the main noun tormentas).
3. Don’t use articles in Spanish to talk about months
For example, if you are describing an event that will happen in August, you don’t need to use an article before the month (although you do need one before days of the week).
You would say habrá muchas fiestas en agosto.
4. Don’t use articles when you use an ordinal number
For instance, if you want to say “Elizabeth the Second is Queen of England”, you would say Elizabeth Segundo es reina de Inglaterra.
Refer to this guide on Spanish ordinal numbers.
Practice using definite and indefinite articles in Spanish
Learning Spanish definite and indefinite articles is easy.
If you’re looking for a more in-depth lesson on this topic with excellent audio examples, Rocket Spanish covers this topic well. I recommend checking that out next.
Remember the rules in this guide and keep at it.
What advice do you have for learning definite and indefinite articles in Spanish?
Share your knowledge in the comments section.